Monday, August 24, 2020

CERVICAL CANCER IN VIETNAMESE WOMAN Thesis Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

CERVICAL CANCER IN VIETNAMESE WOMAN - Thesis Example An optional examination of the investigation is directed to discover the cervical disease contrasts. The survey is set up to break down the information in regards to cervical malignancy. The hypothetical system is the fundamental piece of this investigation; this part presents an examination of the cervical disease in Vietnamese ladies. The aftereffect of the investigation shows that cervical malignant growth is because of low Pap testing rates as opposed to contrast in human papillomavirus disease rates. The impacts of boundaries of avoidance are surveyed. The outcome finds that the vast majority of the ladies are not having Pap screening. The consequences of the investigation will help in usage of intercessions. The investigation finishes up with breaking down the counteraction techniques and consciousness of cervical malignant growth control programs for Vietnamese ladies and suggesting noteworthiness of Pap testing. 1. Select the Problem:  The issue chose for the investigation is the spreading of the cervical malignant growth among Vietnamese ladies. As per the examination directed by QIAGEN Group (QIAGEN is the main worldwide benefactor of test and measure apparatuses. Test apparatuses are utilized to separate and procedure RNA, DNA and proteins from natural models for instance tissue or blood. Examine apparatuses are utilized to make such isolated bimolecular, for example the DNA of a specific infection, perceptible for following examination.) (2010, p.2), it is referenced that comprehensively; cervical malignancy is the second-most-normal disease among ladies. It is the main source of female malignancy passings in creating nations, where 80% of cervical disease cases and passings happen (â€Å"Creating a World Free From Cervical Cancer†, 2010, p.2). The investigation of cervical malignant growth is significant, as it is the principal reason for disease passings all around, especially in the creating nations. Discovering its causes and mindfulne ss about counteraction to Vietnamese ladies is extremely significant. Cervical malignant growth perseveres to affect the personal satisfaction of ladies and their families. â€Å"Shock, dread, self-fault, feebleness, and outrage are the most widely recognized feelings experienced by ladies who get strange Pap test results† (â€Å"Social Impact of Cancer†, n.d., para. 12). Continuously, ladies misconceive their chance in rising malignant growth, as they may not completely comprehend human papillomaviruses and their manifestations, which may result to intensified nervousness with respect to what's to come. So this may influence the improvement of the nation and increase a great deal of significance to contemplate in regards to the spreading of cervical malignant growth among Vietnamese ladies. â€Å"Cervical malignant growth among Vietnamese American ladies has been distinguished as a significant wellbeing disparity† (Taylor et al., 2008, para.2). A long time back , this sort of malignant growth was the premier type of disease among ladies in both North and South Vietnam. By and by, cervical malignancy rates are essentially lesser in northern pieces of the nation. (â€Å"Association among War and Cervical Cancer among Vietnamese Women†, 2004, Para.1). â€Å"Many ladies, be that as it may, are not sufficiently educated about cervical malignant growth and can't explore the human services system† (Schleicher, 2007, pg.2). As indicated by Garner, the fundamental variables of HPV contamination incorporate early sexual relationship, distinctive sexual accomplices, trouble in utilizing strategies for anticipation, and other explicitly transmitted sicknesses, for example, HIV. (Earn, 2012, para.4). The

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Supply Chain Case Problem Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Flexibly Chain Problem - Case Study Example technique, the supposition that will be that the pattern that has been occuring in the past will proceed even in different years to come, that is, the interest designs that have recently happened after some time will keep on doing as such (Operations Management: Creating Value along the Supply Chain, 2012). The fundamental concentration in this technique is Time. Time arrangement strategies comprise of moving normal, direct pattern line and exponential smoothing. For this situation issue the time arrangement technique that would be utilized for book shop the board is moving normal (Operations Management: Creating Value along the Supply Chain, 2012). Along these lines, utilizing the chronicled information gave, the estimate from the exceed expectations auto conjecture is 592.3186813 units. The moving normal strategy is anything but difficult to utilize and see however one can't utilize it to conjecture consequently utilizing exceed expectations. The precision of moving normal is unmistakable along these lines it tends to be depended upon by associations for their different operational arranging forms . Since there are different estimating techniques, incase one sort of the strategy doesn’t give exact data, at that point it is fitting that one attempts different guaging strategies until the precise gauge is gotten . There are other gauge techniques that can be utilized with the verifiable information for the book shop the board. For example, straight pattern lines and exponential smoothing can likewise be utilized since they are well known for short range, fairly simple to utilize and grasp . It ought to be noticed that when determining strategies are first started to people, the absence of estimate accuracy comes as an astonishment or frustration to the people (Operations Management: Creating Value along the Supply Chain, 2012). Thusly, with additionally learning and experience, one can realize that estimating isn't straightforward and doesn't give exact data however the expansion in information and aptitude, organizations that can have progressively characterized gauges have an additional preferred position agaist their rivals

Thursday, July 23, 2020

Democratic Leadership Guide Definition, Qualities, Pros Cons, Examples

Democratic Leadership Guide Definition, Qualities, Pros Cons, Examples UNDERSTANDING THE DIFFERENT CONCEPTS AROUND DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP “I ask everyone’s opinion when they don’t speak up. And then, when they have an opinion, I’ll ask others to talk about it.” â€" Ginny RomettyDemocratic leadership is often confused with the idea of the political philosophy of democracy. While the similarities are obviously there, the style also has its own unique quirks and variations.To understand democratic leadership, one must understand the balancing act of allowing everyone to participate in decision-making and ensuring the organization achieves its objectives. © | Rawpixel.comIn this guide, we’ll explore the concepts around democratic leadership and the characteristics that build the democratic leadership framework. We’ll also explore what it requires from the leader before examining the benefits and downsides to the style. Finally, we’ll look at the leadership model through a few examples of democratic leaders.UNDERSTANDING THE DIFFERENT CONCEPTS AROUND DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIPBefore we start examining the core characteristics of democratic leadership, it’s auspicious to glance at the different concepts involved with the leadership style. Essentially, to understand what democracy means and what are the foundations of the democratic leadership theory.What is democracy?Democracy is a concept everyone is aware of and in order to understand how democratic leadership works, you must comprehend the age-old theory of democracy.The word democracy has it roots in Ancient Greece, which is where the concept of democracy began. The word “democracy” means “rule by the (simple) people”. The essential idea is that instead of someone ruling over people, such as in a tyranny or oligarchy, the people hold the power to decide.While the modern concept of democracy is dated back to the Ancient Athens of 508 B.C., the idea of ruling as a group has been around for much longer. In the broad sense of the word, many tribes have organized around a village council and governed in a co-operative manner.The Greeks used democracy in different manners. Solon created the first constitutional reforms by ending enslavement of the Athenians by fellow Athenians, and removed the privilege-by-birth idea from the society. After Solon, the region experienced more tyranny, but turned back to democratic governance under Cleisthenes and Ecclesia. In fact, Athenians used the word ‘democracy’ for the first time under Cleisthenes’ rule.But it was the ideas of Socrates, Aristotle and Plato that finally gave birth to democracy as a political philosophy. In his famous book Politics, Aristotle describes the benefits of democracy:“When states are democratically governed according to law, there are no demagogues, and the best citizens are securely in the saddle; but where the laws are not sovereign, there you find demagogues. The people become a monarch…such people, in its role as a monarch, not being controlled by law, aims at sole power and becomes like a master.”The Athenian democracy was not the representative democracy we know of today. For one, women were not considered worthy of the vote. The idea faded into the background for a while, with the Roman Empire introducing strongmen to rule once more.The modern democratic movement began in the 18th and 19th centuries, as philosophers and scholars revived the ancient ideas and pushed them further. The first Parliament of Great Britain was established in 1707 and the United States adopted the Constitution in 1787. Although the systems did not provide e qual voting rights at the time, the events began the move towards the modern liberal democracy.The takeaway from the history of democracy is its building blocks:Separation of powers â€" executive, legislative and judicativeThe following of civil rightsReligious libertiesSeparation of church and stateThe democratic idea of power not in the hands of the few, but the many, slowly began shifting out of the political sphere and into the world of business and leadership.Defining democratic leadershipThe early part of the 20th century witnessed more interest towards leadership. People began examining what great leaders are about and whether different leadership strategies exist. The idea of democratic leadership was one of the theories that popped up during this time.The modern basis for the democratic leadership theory dates back to the studies done in the 1930s and 1940s. Kurt Lewin, together with his colleagues R. Lippit and R.K. White, determined three distinctive decision-making style s, which they thought were closely linked with leadership. The three leadership styles included autocratic, democratic and laissez faire and their decision-making methods are broadly outlined in the image below: The democratic style, also referred to as participative leadership, involved the subordinates in the decision-making. The leader and the subordinates shared an equal voice and these groups didn’t showcase hierarchy. The leadership style involved appraisal of both the leader and the subordinates, with strong feedback structures available.Lewin et al. identified three core elements of democratic leadership:The leader would expect the subordinates to report to leaders regarding the task.The leader would expect the subordinates to exhibit self-confidence and the ability to get things done without constant supervision.The leader would expect the subordinates to involve others in the decision-making process and therefore not act alone.In the experiments, the three separate styles were not only identified, but also compared in terms of effectiveness. Among the subordinates, democratic leadership style stood out as the most popular method and the style that achieved the most effective resu lts. According to the studies, under the more autocratic style, the subordinates eventually started rebelling against authority, whilst the laissez faire leadership didn’t lead to coherent results and objectives weren’t achieved efficiently.While Lewin’s research on leadership has been highly influential, he and his colleagues didn’t define democratic leadership with absolute clarity. In fact, according to John Gastil, the model they proposed also had certain undemocratic implications. The problem was the ambiguity of the definition, which allowed breathing room for different levels of participation in the decision-making.Daniel Goleman introduced his idea of democratic leadership as part of his six leadership styles. According to Goleman, the democratic leadership is built around the idea of consensus through collaboration. The leadership framework would bring people together, enhance communication and sharing of ideas, with the team reaching a consensus on the best approac h forward. Goleman theorized that this would create an environment where employees feel more appreciated and therefore, committed to achieving organizational objectives.Aside from the two famous theories of democratic leadership, Sanghan Choi’s 2007 article published in the International Journal of Leadership Studies identified nearly 30 different definitions of democratic leadership. As we’ll see in the following sections, the variety of definitions has caused confusion over what the democratic leadership truly stands for.Nonetheless, one of the most accurate and used definition comes from Gastil’s article A Definition and Illustration of Democratic Leadership. To Gastil, democratic leadership is about “distributing responsibility among the membership, empowering group members, and aiding the group’s decision-making process”. It is these core functions, identified by Gastil and others, which we move on to looking at in the next section.THE CORE ELEMENTS OF DEMOCRATIC LE ADERSHIPDespite some ambiguity in definition, most democratic leadership theories agree on a core set of elements and functions. In this section, we will explore the core functions of the framework and the building blocks required for creating a democratic leadership structure at any situation.Core functionsLet’s first examine the core functions of a democratic leadership framework. One of the most commonly used set of democratic leadership functions came from Gastil’s 1994 article. In the article, Gastil outlined the three core elements you need for the framework to work:The distribution of leadership.The empowerment of subordinates.The aiding of democratic decision-making in deliberations.#1 The distribution of leadershipObviously, the first major function of the framework has to be about distributing the power. The democratic leadership requires an equally shared power structure, without any hierarchy in decision-making. Gastil quoted Krech et al, who wrote in 1962, that the leader must aim “to evoke maximum involvement and the participation of every member in the group activities and in the determination of objectives”.But the responsibility to share responsibilities doesn’t mean that each decision must always be made within the group. Depending on the specific roles and responsibilities, certain decisions might be only in the hands of the leader. This sort of framework refers to the functionality of representative democracy. For example, a member of a national parliament is allowed to make decisions based on his or her best judgment, with the power provided by the voters of the member.Each decision made must be done according to the expectations of the electorate and the member has to be able to explain his decisions to the voter. Similarly, a leader might have the power to make certain decisions, guaranteed that he or she is able to do it with the approval of his or her subordinates.Organizations must therefore carefully define the roles and di stribute power in decision-making according to these roles. The focus of it must aim for a democratic framework, where no one person has concentrated power over others.Decision-making is key for business leaders. Therefore, learn more about decisionship and how to make the right decisions faster. #2 The empowerment of subordinatesAnother vital function of the leadership system is the ability to empower the subordinates. In its simplest form, this happens through the distribution of responsibilities and power to make decisions. Democratic leadership doesn’t purely assume people should participate in decision-making, it actively requests people to contribute.Furthermore, the framework should focus on empowering subordinates through the development of their skills. Since the leadership model requires people to be part of the decision-making process, they should look for enhancing people’s skill set. This includes things like public speaking, logical thinking and organizational skil ls, aside from the pure professional abilities required within the specific industry.The empowerment should also aim to help subordinates develop their psychological abilities. But this should not be done through the traditional “great man” model, according to Gastil. In his article, he quoted Adorno’s 1950 article, which said that democratic leadership should never “manipulate the masses through shrewd exploitation of their mentality”. This means that instead of focusing on the paternal aspect of projecting an image of themselves to the subordinates, the democratic leader should aim to genuinely develop the subordinate’s own skills and abilities.#3 The aiding of democratic decision-making in deliberationsThe final core function of democratic leadership model revolves around the creation of structures that support and encourage deliberation. According to Gastil, this can be achieved “through constructive participation, facilitation, and the maintenance of healthy relat ionships and a positive emotional setting”. If these are fostered, then the above two functions are easier to achieve.Essentially this requires problem solving to be done through analysis and group deliberation. Solutions must reflect the group’s effort and understanding of the situation, with a collective interest of the group being at the heart of the solution.In terms of facilitation, the leader’s role is not to guide the decision itself, but rather ensure there are structures for the process. In essence, the role is to oversee that the process follows pre-set guidelines, which is important for effective decision-making. An organization should create a schedule and process for making decisions, with the group coming up with the solution. Therefore, the leader wouldn’t try to influence the outcome, but he or she would ensure the decision is made within the right amount of time, for example.Gastil also highlights the importance of a healthy relationships and positive enviro nment, as essential aspects of the democratic leadership framework. The leader’s role is to ensure new subordinates are assimilated to the organization and the team. There’s also a strong requirement for acting as a mediator to ensure any issues within subordinates are resolved quickly.We learned that a positive work environment is key. Here is how you can create it. The building blocksTo establish the framework for democratic leadership, there are certain aspects the organization and leader should focus on. The main aspect of democratic leadership, as we explained above is a participative environment. For this to occur, four elements should be focused on.First, it’s important to engage the whole team in terms of determining tasks and other processes. Democratic framework works the best when the roles and responsibilities are clearly defined and divided within the group. If everyone is aware of the tasks, then there is no need to spend time figuring out what needs to be done a nd by whom.Furthermore, the different processes in place should also be clearly defined. Mainly this means creating a clear framework for the democratic process and how different decision are made within the group. You want to know the mechanism for starting out a process of discussion and set a timeline for when the decisions should be taken.The framework should also invite ideas and opinions from the subordinates. You need to establish a framework for providing and assisting feedback. The democratic framework isn’t only about inclusion in the decision-making, but you want to create a system where discussion and open dialogue are part of the make up of the organization. Therefore, it’s important that subordinates feel able to voice their opinions at all times.Finally, the framework requires a clear and well-established system for rewarding creativity and new ideas. The democratic framework requires a strong reward structure. The rewards can range from financial bonuses to simpl e official recognition, but it’s important to acknowledge the work done by subordinates. In many organizations, things such as the “Employee of the Month” are part of the fabric of the company.[slideshare id=35392572doc=whitepapercreativityenglish-140602111939-phpapp01w=710h=400]THE QUALITIES OF A DEMOCRATIC LEADERWhat about the characteristics of a democratic leader? It’s easy to assume that since the decision-making power moves away from the leader, the leader’s responsibilities or importance diminish. But in fact, the democratic leader has to show quite a bit of skill to get the system to work appropriately.The traitsThere are certain traits that make being a democratic leader easier. If you possess the below four traits and you enhance these qualities, you can begin your journey towards democratic leadership.#1 IntelligenceWhile all leadership styles require the leader to be intelligent and competent, democratic leadership is among the top styles that call for this tra it. Because the democratic leader is like a conductor of an orchestra, he or she needs to have the competency to keep all the parts together and moving. Although the decisions might not be in the hands of the leader, the leader needs to ensure the group is competent enough to make the decisions.The leader must provide enough information for the subordinates to guarantee they are well equipped to make the right choices. The leader will often be the person to provide background information and answer questions the subordinates might have on a variety of topics.But intelligence for democratic leader shouldn’t just be about understanding the industry and the professional topics. The leader also needs plenty of emotional intelligence to ensure the team works well together. It’s not easy to keep people working smoothly together in an environment where everyone should be able to voice their opinion. Therefore, the leader needs the ability to communicate with different personalities and get people to work together efficiently.To better understand how emotional intelligence works and how to improve your emotional intelligence, check out the below YouTube video. #2 HonestyDemocratic leaders need to be honest. The open communication and discussion-led leadership framework won’t work if the leader can’t be honest with the subordinates. The leader must be able to lay out the situation to ensure decisions are made on real information and the leader has to stay honest about his or her own opinion. While the leader might have the final say, it doesn’t mean the leader shouldn’t lay down his or her own ideas for what the best course of action should be.When it comes to leadership positions, honesty can be a tricky trait to hold on to. You want to ensure situations don’t escalate and that employees remain happy. But at the same time, you can’t start favoring people or hiding vital information only to maintain a happy work environment. If you show honesty as a lea der, then subordinates are also more likely to stay open. This will create a better work environment for everyone.It’s important to ensure honesty doesn’t translate to meanness. You want to provide critique of ideas and negative criticism when it’s necessary, but you don’t need to do it in a brutal manner. Counselor and psychotherapist Anna Jezuita recommends using an old Sufi saying as a guideline when it comes to being honest without being a bully. According to the saying, you should ask yourself three questions before voicing the opinion:Is the feedback you want to provide true?Is the feedback necessary for reaching an objective or goal?Is the feedback kind or beneficial from the person’s perspective?How to give feedback to employees.[slideshare id=35850132doc=ss-howtofeedbackjw2jc2-140613151525-phpapp02w=710h=400]#3 CreativeA democratic leader must also show plenty of creative flair. Since the leadership framework requires innovative ideas and collaboration, the leader must be able to show the way with ideas. The leader must also be able to help other members of the team to innovate and this itself can require innovative thinking from the leader.Creativity is often considered an innate trait, but everyone can improve and enhance their creative thinking. As a leader, you can improve your own creativity, but also subordinate’s creativity by establishing the right environment within the organization. You can do this by ensuring there are enough stimuli to keep people innovative. You want enough resources available to challenge your thinking. Continue your professional learning and provide subordinates opportunities to do so as well.Creativity is easier when people are able to speak their mind freely and feel that their ideas are respected. You therefore want to encourage this type of behavior by rewarding innovative thinking.#4 FairnessSince people will be open to speak their mind and decisions are mainly done through majority vote, the leader has to be able to show fairness. There can’t be a situation where certain ideas are dealt in a favorable manner, while other people’s ideas are not fully appreciated. The democratic framework must be fair and consistent, with the leader bearing the brunt of this responsibility.As a leader, you need to be able to distance yourself from the situation emotionally and to think rationally. Fairness in this context also means transparency. If you allow subordinates to understand your own thinking process and decisions, you will show them your decisions are based on rationality and not unfair feelings you might have towards different employees.One of the key ways to be fairer is to set clear guidelines. If you and the team create a set of processes for the objectives you want to achieve, you limit the risk of appearing unfairly. Communicate with your subordinates more and ensure you listen to feedback, even if you think it isn’t just.As a leader you should be thinking about creating an ethical corporate culture. How to make democratic leadership work?Establishing a democratic leadership model in an organization is not an easy thing to do. But with the help of the above characteristics and the below steps, it is possible to ensure the leader can make this leadership style to work.First, the leader must focus on open and honest communication. It’s crucial for the leader to take in and give fair criticism without it causing a problem. For this kind of communication to work, the leader must establish trust with subordinates and show consistency and fairness in his or her decisions.The key is to approach ideas and suggestions with an open mind. If people don’t feel criticized or mocked by the ideas they lay out, they are more likely to feel able to continue to stay creative. In addition, the leader needs to ensure everyone in the group is able to view different ideas without dismissing them immediately. The leader wants to create an open and honest communication ch annel between the subordinates as well and not just between him and them.The trust and commitment can be built quicker if there is respect for different ideas, even when the particular idea doesn’t fit the current need. As a leader, you shouldn’t turn away an idea only because it isn’t relevant for the moment. You don’t want to spend too much time talking about issues that aren’t relevant, but you also don’t want to dismiss suggestions straight away.The third point of focus should be to create an environment of determined commitment to decisions and explanation of different roles and rules. As mentioned in the previous section, the democratic leadership framework works the best when roles and responsibilities are outlined clearly. One of the key reasons behind clarified processes is to ensure people stay on-topic. The leader must ensure the conversation stays within the framework and the discussion is flowing towards a solution for the problem at hand.In essence, the dem ocratic framework needs someone to keep the process flowing towards the right direction, even when the power of decision-making is shared. If you’ve ever been to a big conference, you know there has to be an organizing team helping people out, even when the participants are free to decide where and when they go.The determination to commit to decisions is another important part of the leader’s role under this model. This essentially requires the leader to ensure that when a decision is made, the team sticks to it. Although decision-making can take longer under the democratic system, once the decision has been taken, the discussion around it should end. Naturally, the organization must constantly review whether the decisions have been the right ones to take; yet, the leader can’t have the team second-guessing the decisions at all times. After the decision has been taken, the leader must ensure everyone gets to work.Finally, the leader has to learn to explain decisions openly and clearly to the group. As we’ve discussed above, not all decisions are necessarily made within the group under a democratic system, and even when they are made within the group, the leader’s role is to get everyone on board. As a leader, your duty is to ensure subordinates understand the reasoning behind the decisions.Don’t confuse explaining to apologizing. As the leader, you don’t need to validate the decisions, even though you want to ensure subordinates have an understanding of the reasoning behind the decision. The decisions, with the different aspects affecting it, must be clearly communicated to the rest of the group and organization, but the leader shouldn’t face lengthy objections. As mentioned earlier, once a decision is made, the group should get on to reaching its objectives and goals.Watch the following video and learn how to deliver engaging speeches to your employees. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIPDemocratic leadership has a positive r eputation, mostly driven by people’s appreciation of the democratic process. The enhanced involvement of different stakeholders is considered a positive element, especially in a world where corporations don’t always have the best reputation.Nonetheless, the democratic leadership framework comes with its own set of advantages and disadvantages, just like any other leadership style.Advantages of democratic leadershipThe advantages of the leadership style come from the increased involvement of subordinates. First, being part of a group and having an equal say in the running of things, will provide a sense of empowerment for employees. When the subordinate feels included and able to have a say, the job satisfaction rate can improve as a result. You don’t feel as a machine just doing what you are told, but a part of the organization.Being more involved with the projects and tasks will increase the subordinate’s commitment levels. As Lewin and his colleagues found during their exp eriments, the enhanced inclusion in decision-making spills over to how attached one feels to the task. When you feel your contribution is important, you want to put your heart and soul into achieving the results. In essence, the subordinates see themselves invested in the outcome. This in turn is beneficial for the organization because it can lead to projects being finished more efficiently.Furthermore, democratic leadership also enjoys from the benefits of diverse opinions. Since the decision-making process is based on sharing ideas and collaborating as a team to reach a consensus, the decisions are more thought-through and could better answer the needs of the organization. There is more balance, and the discussion before the decisions are made can point out any problems the process and project might have. These can then be eradicated or prepared for better.Gathering different opinions over decisions isn’t just about the diverse ideas it brings about, but also the increased knowl edge. People are experts on different things and by asking a group of people to contribute, you guarantee the people who know the most about a giving subject, provide their expertise. Therefore, decisions made within a group can show higher competence levels.[slideshare id=32565737doc=creativityinworkplace-140321003601-phpapp01w=710h=400]Furthermore, the solutions are not decided on a whim, but are thoroughly thought through, as the process requires people to discuss the ideas before the decision. This has the possibility of ensuring the option the organization goes for has been tested for possible risks and therefore, the group can be better prepared for everything.Innovation is flourished because people are free to share ideas, offer feedback and challenge the current ways of doing things. The democratic environment looks outside of the box and constantly wonders whether behaviors, actions and ideas can be improved. For a business, this kind of environment can provide benefits in terms of productivity and product development.In addition, consensus in decision-making can help create a stronger vision of the future and ensure everyone is as committed to working towards these objectives. Even though people might not always agree with the group’s decision, they have nonetheless been part of the process and have, hopefully, understood the reasoning behind the decision. This can ensure cohesion within the group and strengthen everyone’s commitment to achieving the goal.The above can help build a work environment based on trust. Since subordinates and leaders have access to the same information and their decision-making power is equal, there is no resentment or mistrust within the group. You don’t need to question the leader’s motives or be afraid of the decisions that are taken â€" you will be an active member in the process and you can trust the leader will listen to your views. The more trust there is in the workplace, the more motivated and loyal the su bordinates will be.Overall, the above can drive up productivity and increase the bottom line consequently. Subordinates are more satisfied at work, reducing the company’s churn rate, and the decisions are more effective and innovative, creating better service, which can lead to improved sales.Disadvantages of democratic leadershipWhile it’s easy to understand democratic leadership through the above advantages, the leadership framework shouldn’t be considered error free. There are specific disadvantages of the theory and it is important leaders are aware of these.First, as mentioned in the first section, the leadership theory has often lacked a proper definition of what the democratic leadership actually entails. The clarity in definitions matters, as it makes measurement of the theory’s effectiveness rather difficult. As Gastil’s research showed, the framework has been used to describe systems that didn’t actually include democratic participation.He used the example of W illiam Graebner’s 1986 study of the Foremen’s Club to point out the problem. The club used democratic leadership style, but in a manner aimed to “manipulate foremen”. He quotes Graebner’s findings, which state the participatory framework was “designed to modify attitudes, and to convince foremen, a group increasingly tempted to unionize, that their natural allegiance was to capital rather than labor.”Nonetheless, the ambiguity of the theory isn’t the only disadvantage of the leadership theory. Its participatory style can also provide companies with different types of headaches.The first big disadvantage comes from the loss of speed in decision-making. Since democratic leadership requires everyone’s input, the timeline for making decisions increases, as you need to organize meetings and have proper discussions over the subject. In a business world, quick decisions are often required as long periods of indecision can lead to drop in operations.If you have a problem i n the manufacturing department, for example, you can’t spend a month deciding what is the best machine to buy as a replacement or whether you should just repair it. Goleman identified this issue and said“the price [of democratic leadership] is endless meetings and confused employees who feel leaderless”.Furthermore, democratic leadership relies on consensus. But a majority decision isn’t always the best decision â€" a compromise is not always worth it. Although people might prefer hiring the new lead developer in-house, the organization might actually benefit more from bringing in new talent, as this could mean new ideas and skills, for example. As you can see, the diversity of opinion might not mean the best idea wins, but rather that the team creates a version which most people agree with.Although democratic decision-making tends to put a number of knowledgeable minds together, there is a danger of grouping people with different skill sets. Not everyone has the same knowle dge of a given situation and therefore, the opinions are not necessarily equally as good. Winston Churchill once critiqued the democratic system by stating, “The best argument against democracy is a five-minute conversation with the average voter”. While this sounds rather harsh, it has an underlying truth to it.Consider, for example, an organization with a team that has people with different skills and responsibilities. When it comes to decision-making on an organization wide matter, it’s hard to guarantee everyone has the exact same knowledge. Therefore, their decision and opinion might be driven by misinformation or lack of knowledge. In addition, certain situations might involve sensitive information that only the leader is aware of. Sharing it might not be possible, yet if the subordinates aren’t aware of it, they can’t make appropriate decisions.Interestingly, just as some types of employees don’t work well under an authoritative leadership, some don’t perform at their best in a democratic framework. There are personalities that don’t like making decisions and certain people might even find the requirement to participate in the process burdensome.For example, the employee might feel like they are doing more than the actual leader, although they might not be as handsomely rewarded as the leader. The leader might receive a higher salary, yet the employees have to be prepared for the decision-making and this could decrease the morale.For the leadership style to work, clarity in guidelines and individual roles and responsibilities must be ensured. Without an understanding of who needs to know and what, the communication might fail within the group and projects can stall or even fail. It’s therefore a tricky leadership model to implement and requires plenty of setting up to work. EXAMPLES OF FAMOUS DEMOCRATIC LEADERSExamples of democratic leaders are not hard to find. The political world is full of leaders who have called themselves democratic, although their actions might not have always been as democratic as voters might have hoped.But as we’ve established above, the democratic leadership model is not about what side you are on the political spectrum, but about the participation of subordinates in decision-making. Plenty of leaders have used this as a framework for their leadership and below are some of the most notable examples.Dwight D. EisenhowerDwight D. Eisenhower is a good example of what the democratic leadership can achieve when it’s put under pressure. The Republican president of the United States had to use his leadership knowledge during one of the toughest times in human history, the Second World War.Eisenhower used a strategic approach to solving the issues, both militarily and diplomatically. He acted as the Supreme Allied Commander during the war, helping to oversee one of the largest air and sea armadas in history. He later became the Supreme Command of NATO and served two terms as the president of the United States.During his time in the military, he didn’t command autocratically, as many commanders would have done in the circumstances. His quote, “Together we must learn how to compose differences, not with arms, but with intellect and decent purpose,” exemplifies his wish to create more harmony and consensus in everything society does. He wanted to involve other people in the decision-making and sought out expert opinions from others.Furthermore, he helped create democratic consensus in a world that had been torn up by war. He transformed the White House, adding in new positions for close advisors, enhancing his ability to seek advice from others.The Mayo Family / The Mayo ClinicIn 1889, Dr William Mayo, along with his sons, founded the Mayo Clinic to provide cutting-edge medical research around the world i n a non-profit style. The hospital, healthcare and research facility now attracts plenty of brilliant medical pioneers from different lifestyles, largely due to its focus on the democratic leadership framework.The research centre has been a success because it isn’t led autocratically, but people’s ideas and opinions are listened to. There are opportunities for collaboration everywhere and therefore, the doctors and researchers are able to draw the best out of each other. People are interested in working for the organization because of its focus on guaranteeing everyone an equal voice.Dr. Charlie Mayo said,“The problem before us is so to exchange information, and so to educate men through travel that there shall develop a final, cosmopolitan system of medicine which will combine the best elements to be found in all countries.”Therefore, the medical facility the family set up didn’t turn away experts or ignore what they were saying. The family understood that transformation of healthcare requires fresh thinking and collective knowledge.The organization also understood the importance of combining different levels of knowledge together. They didn’t subscribe to the simple specialist idea that if you are an expert, you alone can make the right choices. In another telling quote, Dr Charlie Mayo said,“The definition of a specialist as one who ‘knows more and more about less and less’ is good and true. Its truth makes essential that the specialist, to do efficient work, must have some association with others who, taken altogether, represent the whole of which the speciality is only a part.”Larry Page / GoogleGoogle has pursued democratic leadership since its foundation in 1998. Larry Page, co-founder and Google CEO, has been an incremental part of creating, not only the business empire of Google, but its democratic approach to innovation and collaboration.Page’s intelligent and creative personality drives his style. He has been ambitious througho ut his career; at one stage, he stated his work philosophy is “we should be building great things that don’t exist”. The radical approach to innovation drives the democratic framework as well.Because Page is so focused on finding the next big thing, he likes to involve other people in decision-making. His approach is questioning and he tries to bring out the best in his employees. There are no half truths and shortcuts, but employees must be able to demonstrate their opinions or ideas. When Page started out as Google CEO, he changed its existing strategies around. His first objective was to break the company into smaller parts, which would use democratic strategies to innovate and create. Essentially, he wanted them to act as small start-ups. He provided the individual teams with more autonomy and wanted enhanced collaboration within the team in return.Page’s leadership style shines through the following quote:“My job as a leader is to make sure everybody in the company ha s great opportunities, and that they feel they’re having a meaningful impact and are contributing to the good of society. As a world, we’re doing a better job of that. My goal is for Google to lead, not follow that.”Muhtar Kent / Coca-ColaAnother famous CEO, who used the democratic model to succeed, is Muhtar Kent. Kent’s career with Coca-Cola highlights what commitment and focus on employee satisfaction can look like at its best.Kent began his career in Coca-Cola in 1978. He built his way up the corporate ladder, achieving success along the way. One of his biggest achievements was to double the company’s bottling operation’s output as a director. He held various leadership roles and honed his skills in managing people in different situations.When he achieved higher positions within the company, he always put his managerial focus on improving the leadership frameworks within the organization and ensuring the management promotes teamwork. He believed it to be an essential part of guaranteeing effective results within the organization.Kent became the CEO in 2008 and immediately focused on creating a more collaborative management team to address Coca-Cola’s biggest problems. Kent became famous for seeking advice during decision-making and he wanted to ensure the company used diversity of opinion for its benefit. In a speech in 2012, Kent said,“We don’t have all the answers or even all the questions, but we’re committed to innovation, new ways of thinking and new pathways to growth and value creation.”To understand Kent’s participatory approach to business, you also have to look at his record in partnering with other organizations. He said in a Fortune interview in 2015 that, “every moment of every day is an opportunity to start or strengthen a relationship, and those relationships, if cultivated, can lead to incredible opportunities for everyone involved”.His personal connections helped Coca-Cola open a plant in Albania, after the fall of the Soviet Union and enter the Polish market later on as well. By including other people into your plans, you can achieve success.To get an insight into Muhtar Kent’s leadership style and ideology, watch the interesting leadership lecture he gave at Wharton School. FINAL THOUGHTSDemocratic leadership is perhaps the most beloved leadership framework. The idea of shared responsibility and greater involvement of the whole team has become popular among CEOs and employees alike. But it’s also a system, which can be difficult to establish and maintain.A truly democratic leadership framework does not necessarily work because it can be slow in terms of decision-making and its consensus-favoring approach might lead to diluted decisions in terms of effectiveness. As examples from the business world have shown, often-solid leadership requires making the difficult and unfavorable decisions in a time of crisis. With a democratic leadership, the focus can be too much in maintaining a good working environment instead of doing what the organization needs.On the other hand, open and innovative environment does breed creativity, which can boost a company’s performance. If the leader is able to use his or her creativity, honesty and intelligence to empower and challenge the subordinates, then the group together can achieve results fast. The democratic framework does provide a more equal and innovative setting for people to achieve the best possible results.

Friday, May 22, 2020

The Development Of Knowing Cognitive And Moral Changes...

The Development of Knowing: Cognitive and Moral Changes The development of a person is complex and occurs on many levels. Although developmental models differ, they all tend to suggest that development has the following characteristics (Neukrug, 2017, 2013): 1- Continual- goes on and on 2- Orderly, Sequential, builds upon itself- like steps 3- A change process - moving in different phases 4- Painful, yet growth producing- let go to grow 5- Hopeful - optimistic 6- Preventive and wellness oriented- concerning mental health According to Neukrug, there are many theories of human development. Some that stand out the most are physical development, cognitive and moral development, personality development and life span development (2017, 2013). According to Piaget, children pass through four periods of growth (Neukrug, 2017, 2013). The first is the sensorimotor stage. In this stage, children can respond to physical and sensory experience. They cannot maintain mental images because they do not have full language ability. The second stage is the preoperational stage, which is from ages 2-7. This is the stage where the child’s language has developed and they have the ability to maintain mental images. However, they do not yet have the ability to think logically. The third stage is the concrete-operational stage, which is from ages 7-11. Children in this stage begin to â€Å"figure things out† through logical tasks, but will have difficulty with metaphors and proverbs because theyShow MoreRelated Development of a Four Year Old Child Essays589 Words   |  3 PagesDevelopment of a Four Year Old Child Works Cited Not Included Enthusiasm in children is like a ripple in the water ... it spreads. ~Anonymous~ The study of child development helps us understand the changes we see as children grow and develop. A child?s development is divided into five areas: physical, emotional, cognitive, social, and moral development (Mitchell and David 1992). Although each area will be discussed separately, it is important to remember that all these areasRead MoreThe Movement Of Positive Psychology1151 Words   |  5 Pageslearn to embrace life differently by focusing on the positive aspect of our life knowing that death is waiting. From a positive psychology perspective, we are shifting our focus from the negative aspects of our life to the mores positive aspects such as thinks that make us happy and gives our life meaning. Social-Cognitive theories of prosocial behavior †¢ Social learning theory emphasis the important of internal cognitive processes. It states that people can learn vicariously through observation andRead MoreDevelopmental Tasks Of Adolescence And Development871 Words   |  4 PagesPhysical development, motor development, Cognitive development, information processing, and language development. Each child will undergo different physical changes in development according to our text Development Through The Lifespan, â€Å"Children grow slower in early childhood and they become longer and leaner† (216). Growth centers will emerge within the skeleton and as baby fat falls off, children gradually become thinner. Along with physical development the skeletal growth and brain development increasesRead MoreWho Is Entering Adulthood?899 Words   |  4 Pagesyoung adulthood, middle-aged adulthood, and late adulthood. (Ciccarelli and White, p. 329) Nonetheless, we often go through various stages in our lives, unknowing what exactl y is going on or how to define these occurrences. However, a person’s development is studied and documented by psychologist, and in this essay I will attempt to interpret exactly those views while referencing my own personal experiences. If I were to categorize myself at the age of 29 years old, I would still be considered inRead MoreThe Theories Of Adolescent Development Essay819 Words   |  4 Pages Adolescents go through many different development processes. We are going to talk about my development but first let’s talk about the development theories. The three main theories of adolescent development are Cognitive, Moral, and Identity. The Cognitive Development theory explains the mechanisms and processes by which the child develops into an individual who can reason and think using hypothesis. Children construct an understanding of the world, then experience variations between what they alreadyRead MoreDevelop1294 Words   |  6 PagesName: Tutor: Task: Date: Developmental psychology Infancy and Childhood Physical development During early childhood stage, infants begin to drop their roundish baby like display. Their bones grow more proportionate with the lengthening of their legs and arms. They start to obtain fine motor skills. The newfound skills enable them to grip a pencil in a more functional way. This is a good time to provide them with puzzles and blocks, as well as to supervise them while they use paper and scissorsRead MoreThe Legal System : Young Children Of Criminal Acts878 Words   |  4 PagesWe are born with a sin nature, which can lead to very malicious circumstances. As we continually grow and understand the social norms in our culture, we learn what is right from what is wrong. In the tragic event of a young child not knowing these principals of right from wrong, he shot and killed a fellow student at the age of only 6 years’ old. Due to the fact that this child was at such a young age the child that committed the crime was acquitted of the charged held against him. The legal sys temRead MoreCase Study Assignment #1, Communist Prison Camps Essay657 Words   |  3 Pagesfive core aspects of self-awareness: 1. Core self-evaluation – Identifying the persons individual personality attributes 2. Values- Identifying the individuals personal standards and moral judgment 3. Cognitive style – Identifying information acquisition and evaluation 4. Attitudes towards change – Identifying adaptability and responsibility 5. Emotional intelligence – Identifying emotional awareness and control. These processes, as they are the very core of the self-concept canRead MoreStudent Development Theory : The Personal Responsibility Of Students955 Words   |  4 PagesOn student development, there are theories which I can apply in order to fully understand how students develop in high education settings. The following are theories I would apply. Moral development theory: the theory shows the personal responsibility of students. Students require moral development and they should face moral issues and they should use ethical solutions in response to issues they face in life (Sjà ¸lie, 2014). They must differentiate between right and wrong in their life to maintainRead MoreThe Developmental Psychology Of A Child983 Words   |  4 Pageswould like to start by saying that a child’s development depends on many factors and circumstances. In finding if a child has a developmental problem or a psychological problem takes time and a delicate nature in finding the problem. The child that I am going to represent and defend on his or her actions, is a child that needs the proper representation of his or her age of developmental psychology. The biological, cognitive and emotional/social developments are what I will touch on for the child’s age

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Profiles of a Spa Customer - 6542 Words

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Business travelers who want to minimize jet lags, mothers who wants to spend time for themselves, persons with back problems seeking for relief, weekend warriors who are sore from overexertion, an obese man who needs help in controlling his weight, or a couple who wants to reconnect, all come to one place to seek help, the spa. Today’s spa is a center for healing and nourishing mind, body, and spirit. People go to spas for fitness, stress management, peace of mind, pampering and pleasure, and health and wellness. Spas are everywhere. According to the International Spa Association (ISPA), the number of spas in the United States grew at an annual rate of 21% from 1995-1999 and continues to show strong growth. The†¦show more content†¦The additional information that will be gathered from this study may help ease the possibility that future spa businesses in the city may not suffer the same fate as those business establishments who closed shop early. This study may be replicated by other researchers who are envisioning operating other spa business outside of the city, but on a much wider scope, which may involve other variables not covered in this study. Scope and Limitations of the Study This study was only concerned in finding out the profile of the 5 selected spa establishments in Bacolod City. The respondents of the study were limited only to the customers of the selected spa establishments. The personal profile of the spa customer only covered their age, gender, marital status, educational background, employment status, and monthly income. In the process of conducting this research, the following constraints were identified, namely: the non-participation of some identified respondents in the data gathering and the non-availability of some important respondents during the data gathering. Definition of Terms The following terms were defined operationally for better understanding. Age. This refers to the stage of the life of the spa customers grouped in 6 categories ranging from 18 years and below to over 65 years. Gender. This refers to the sexual characteristics of the spa customers classified as male andShow MoreRelatedCase 1-3 Canyon Ranch1383 Words   |  6 Pages9 Meeting minutes 9 Case 1-3 Canyon Ranch Summary of the problem In spite of dramatic growth of the spa industry, little attention is still paid to information technologies, thus, operations remain low tech. As CIO at Canyon Ranch, based on the customer information available to Ranch Canyon, it is necessary to decide how to build effective customer relationship management (CRM) and business intelligence systems at Canyon Ranch. It is also important to analyse the impact theseRead More day spa marketing plan Essay1302 Words   |  6 Pagesestimated 12,100 spas throughout the United States. In the U.S. the largest spa category, accounting for seven of every ten spas, is day spa. Resort and hotel spas are the second largest, with club spas, medical spas, mineral spring spas and destination spas respectively trailing. Geographically speaking, the distribution of spas in the U.S. generally parallels that of the population distributions with the largest region being the North East. According to the ISPA (The International SPA Association)Read MoreThe New Spa Service Launching A New Weight Loss Treatment Essay1082 Words   |  5 Pagesis to promote the new spa service launching a new weight loss treatment in San Antonio, Texas. Today, spas are available in all major US cities. This type of health care is one of the most popular public services and does not require substantial investments. General Product Information A special feature of our spa service is the battle against different classic and non-standard methods. The reason for choosing this orientation lies in its uniqueness - now a small number of spa centers in San AntonioRead Morecanyon ranch1011 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿Canyon Ranch Answers Parth Gandhi 1. What is the value of customer information to Canyon Ranch? Ans.   To Canyon Ranch, customer information is must in order to implement their business model successfully. The value that it gives to the business is that it understands customer’s unique wants and give alternatives that will allow each guest to rach their individual goals. This is essential for Canyon Ranch to reach its mission to â€Å"inspire people to make healthy living, turning hopes andRead MoreQuality Of A Healthy Lifestyle Regimen Essay1281 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction No longer considered self-indulgence, spa visits are now increasingly perceived as in integral part of a healthy lifestyle regimen. By relieving stress, soothing sore bodies and eliminating damaging toxins, spas craft emotional, mental and physical well-being for their loyal adherents. â€Æ' Definition of terms Sales commission â€Æ' Literature Review Excellence in service management â€Æ' Control bacterial contamination Well-maintained spas are easy to keep clean and healthy. However, if neglectedRead MoreThe Market For High End Skin Care Products1741 Words   |  7 PagesThe Market The market for high end skin care products is a rapidly growing industry with physician branding at the heart of our skin care line. MediFace Spa will be targeting two distinct market segments. The first segment is patients of Advanced Eye Care and Aesthetic Center, who are currently consumers of the skin care line. The second segment will cater to the broader market. Furthermore our clients are seeking total body health regiments which we believe our target marketing will focusRead MoreHosp 310 Final Exam Answers792 Words   |  4 Pagesentree for a customer on a special diet (you may select the diet preference such as low salt, high carb, or low fat). Question 14. TCO 7. Outline the scope of college and university food services. What are the advantages of managing a college dining hall versus a commercial restaurant? Question 15. TCO 1. You are a service manager for a national airline preparing to leave on a transcontinental flight from New York City to San Francisco. List the moments of truth your customers will encounterRead MoreSample Resume : Wedding Bar1085 Words   |  5 PagesSelected customer profile- A honeymoon couple in their 20’s Customer departing from Toronto Duration- 1 week Hotel chosen - Grand Bahia Principe Destination- Jamaica Features and benefits All Inclusive resort- The features included here are: Serial number Features 1 It is a Victorian Style hotel. It is located right at the beach. Jamaica is one of the most fantastic islands in the world (Day, 2012). 2 Sea view will satisfy each guest as from all the rooms such views are possible. 3 It has a threeRead MoreMkt 500: Enhancing the Marketing Plan Essay2022 Words   |  9 Pagesconstructing a competitor array. The steps include: †¢ Determine who your competitors are †¢ Determine what benefits they expect (Competitor analysis, 2010). Impression’s Salon Spa has many competitors in the Washington, DC Metro area, however, its main competitors are: †¢ Lounge Hair Salon †¢ Blondie’s Hair Studio Spa †¢ Salon Rouge Lounge Hair Salon. Lounge Hair Salon has been performing hair miracles for over 5 years specializing in extensions, color and designer cuts. It has passion toRead MoreEndeering Day Spa Essay2278 Words   |  10 PagesEndeering Day Spa The Endeering Day Spa is a full-service day spa dedicated to consistently providing high customer satisfaction by rendering excellent service, quality products, and furnishing an enjoyable atmosphere at an acceptable price/value relationship. We will also maintain a friendly, fair, and creative work environment, which respects diversity, ideas, and hard work. Market research indicates a specific and growing need in the area for the products and services Endeering Day Spa will offer

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Com/156 Assignment 6 Week 1 Free Essays

Week 6 Assignment 1 COM/156, Lindy Hatten There are several instances of naturally occurring substances that have positive medicinal benefits, which easily outweigh the negative effects of the drugs. Parts of the Cannabis plants are a very obvious example; there are currently seventeen states that have legalized medicinal marijuana for use by patients with a qualifying medical condition that has been evaluated by a physician. Cannabis is safe and effective at treating peripheral neuropathy, which causes great suffering to HIV/AIDS patients. We will write a custom essay sample on Com/156 Assignment 6 Week 1 or any similar topic only for you Order Now Cannabis is also very effective in alleviating the pain and nausea caused from many other medical conditions and/or the treatments, such as chemotherapy, which is used to treat many forms of cancer. Recently, the use of cannabis in treatment of hepatitis C also has shown to have alleviating abilities for underlying conditions. According to a study conducted in 2006 by a research group in northern California, marijuana-using patients were three times more likely to clear the deadly virus from their bodies. Another naturally occurring substance that has shown medicinal benefits in recent clinical trials, conducted in the UK in 2006, is psilocybin, which is found in several types of mushrooms, but most notably the Psilocybe genus. Mushrooms containing the psychoactive alkaloids are often referred to as â€Å"magic mushrooms† due to their hallucinogenic properties. Researchers have found that the active chemical in these mushrooms can have curative properties for those who suffer with a very painful form of headaches known as cluster headaches, or as they are sometimes known suicide headaches, due to the number of suicides amongst sufferers from the high level of pain. The study concluded with the observation, â€Å"Our observations suggest that psilocybin and LSD may be effective in treating cluster attacks, possibly by a mechanism that is unrelated to their hallucinogenic properties. This report should not be misinterpreted as an endorsement of the use of illegal substances for self-treatment of cluster headaches. † A more recent study lead by Dr. Robert Carhart-Harris concluded that previous results are consistent, and also that psilocybin helped to reduce the amount of activity from the mPFC neurotransmitter, which plays a significant role in depression. The medicinal effects of psilocybin are very similar to several depression treatments available. While the promise of psilocybin treating these headaches is still a long way away from any sort of legal medical use, this is a step in the right direction. As well as the positive medicinal benefits of several natural drugs, there are positive spiritual aspects of natural drug use. Natural drugs have been used for millennia to alleviated what ancient people believed to be spiritual corruption, as cleansing agents, and as well as a sacrament. Ayahuasca and peyote have been used for thousands of years by hundreds, if not thousands, of different cultures. Ayahuasca is a psychoactive tea that is made by infusing the plant matter of two or more psychoactive plants. One ingredient contains 5-MeO-DMT (a substance similar to LSD), and the other ingredient contains an MAOI that allows the DMT to be absorbed into the bloodstream. The Quechua people of South America have been known to use it and have used it for thousands of years. They use it as a sacrament in order to become more in tune with nature and their gods, and believe that it gives the user supernatural abilities of insight and wisdom. Peyote is another substance that indigenous people of the Americas, more specifically the Navajos, used as a sacrament, and still to this day members of certain Native American tribes use peyote in their religious ceremonies. Responsible, safe, and moderate use can reduce one’s risk of addiction and can reduce the debilitating effects of certain drugs. Obviously if you smoke two packs of cigarettes a day, and you were to cut back down to five cigarettes a day, then your risk of heart attack and stroke would decrease. The same is true for other drugs. While no drug is safe and all are addictive to some extent, moderate and responsible use can greatly reduce the inherit risks that come with some drugs. Responsible drug use also involves knowing about the drugs and what parts of your body they affect, inhibit, and degrade. Responsible users do not use heroin, due to the inherit risks that come with it. It is a highly addictive substance with little medicinal value in the shadow of its volatility. Safety for drug users is ignored and addicts go untreated and persecuted as criminals rather than people with an illness. In parts of the UK, and other countries in Europe, there are what is known as SISs (Safe Injection Sites), where addicts are given access to clean needles and other sterile equipment in order to decrease the transfer of disease from people sharing needles. This is productive towards the main problem, and the U. S. should take note of this. These people are going to get their hands on these drugs regardless of their legal status, it is the government’s responsibility to protect these people and provide them with safe equipment in order to protect them from disease. Despite the positive medicinal values and spiritual uses of many natural drugs, society has wrongly demonized several natural drugs due to a lack of understanding and misinformation. Anti-marijuana activists and certain government agencies would have you believe that marijuana is a highly addictive substance with no medicinal value, and that the users of the drug are to be considered criminals and addicts. Harry Anslinger of the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, which eventually evolved into the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), created the â€Å"Reefer madness† campaign in the 1930s. The use of the Mexican name of the cannabis plant, marijuana, was popularized by the Hearst newspaper chain to scare the public into believing that there was a new and dangerous drug being introduced to American youth by black musicians and Mexicans. The result of this media blitz was the passage of the Marijuana Tax Act of 1937, which was the beginning of marijuana’s prohibition. Since its prohibition, numerous studies have been conducted to determine marijuana’s toxicity level: the conclusion of the studies was that it would take 20,000 to 40,000 times the normal dose to induce death. Another way of stating this would be that a person would have to ingest 1,500 pounds in 15 minutes. In 1972, after studying all the evidence, Judge Francis Young of the DEA found marijuana to be â€Å"one of the safest therapeutically active substances known to man. He also added that, â€Å"One must reasonably conclude that there is accepted safety for use of marijuana under medical supervision. To conclude otherwise, on the record, would be unreasonable, arbitrary and capricious. † His decision in the case was overruled by the Court of Appeals and medicinal marijuana was still denied even to seriously ill patients, until decades later when states began legalizing medicinal marijuana themselves. How to cite Com/156 Assignment 6 Week 1, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

Middle Easts Islamic Ideologies

Introduction The integration of world trade systems combined with the political affiliations within different states altered the socio-economic and political practices in the contemporary world.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Middle East’s Islamic Ideologies specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Although the social, economic and cultural changes differed within states, in the Middle East, the progressive events, which occurred from as early as the sixteenth century is the route of clash of civilization in the modern society. Among the events are establishment of Muslim empires together with the emergence of international trade and the commencement of religious conflicts especially the protestant had a great impact on the Middle East. Consequently, the spread of Islamic ideologies in the Middle East, which differ greatly from Christianity in the Western leads to conflicts between the two regions. There fore, according to Huntington the western and Middle East region will forever be in war mainly because of the contrasting religious, social, cultural, and political differences. Unless the world learns to accept and appreciate the inherent cultural differences of each other, the contemporary society is set to engage in endless wars especially between Western regions and Islamic world. Islamic civilization Islamic religion is the common religion in the Middle East while Christianity prospers in the western world. The major conflicting regions in the modern society are between Islamic and Christian states. Although the Muslim holy book, the Quran advocates for peace, the religion takes prides in promoting holy wars. According to Gelvin (2011), one of the scholars contradicts the Quran and the religion ideologies of Muslim when he asserts, â€Å"what can you expect from a religion that assigns pride in of place to martyrdom and jihad† (p.3)? Therefore, the urge and strive by the people of the Middle East to spread their religion leads to conflicts with other countries in the Western world. On the other hand, the western society is quick to point out faults and condemn the Islamic religion thus resulting into constant disagreements. Likewise, the Muslim are ready to protect their religion to the extend of shading blood, which results in frequent suicide bomb attacks or the famous September 11, attacks on the United states. One of the factors that make religion the major source of conflict is the inability of an individual to practice two religions at the same time. Although a person can hold dual citizenship or even intermarry, he/she can never be a Christian and at the same time be a Muslim. Thus, the religion identity of an individual in the modern world is crucial to his/her survival. Additionally, the religion conflicts have led to the establishment of a number of terrorism groups like the Al Qaeda and the Taliban. After the discovery of oil in most of the countries in the Middle East, the terrorism groups were able to fund themselves.Advertising Looking for research paper on asian? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, the Al Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden’s father enriched himself through the oil business. Subsequently, Osama inherited his father’s wealth, which he used in financing the terrorism attacks. Furthermore, most of the terrorism groups succeed because of the lack of peace between the countries in the Middle East like Afghanistan and the Soviet Union. Through promotion of hate speech on western countries, especially America, they negatively brainwash people, which leads to conflicts. Moreover, the ideologies of the rebel groups accelerate war between the two regions. According to the Muslims, America’s aim is to use other countries especially in the Middle East to establish strong economic and political status. The discovery of oil ores in the Middle East attracted many countries especially from the west like America. Thus, the Americans established themselves in the East, which the region viewed as post colonialism. Additionally, Americans strive to promote their way of life in the region culminating into conflicts. Unless different nations learn to live with the cultural differences in the world, conflicts will exist forever. When the terrorism groups attacked the western world, countries like France, Britain, and the United States vowed to retaliate. Consequently, most of the leaders from the East like Saddam Hussein who promoted terrorism died in the hands of Americans. In addition, the recent killing of the Al Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden has aggravated the tension between western world and the Middle East. Therefore, who knows what the terrorist groups might be planning? Unfortunately, the leaders from the two regions cannot reconcile because of the extreme religious, political, and cultural practices. Eqbal Ahmed observes that, â€Å"modern Islamists are concerned with power, not with soul, with the mobilization of people for political purposes rather than with sharing and alleviating their sufferings and aspirations† (Said, 2001, p.3). Therefore, the Islam as a religion is less concerned with peace or humanitarian ideas, which contradicts with the Christianity making the two regions irreconcilable. On the other hand, America is the world’s superpower and its political prowess has made it an enemy with other nations especially from the Middle East. To retain its political prowess America has build supersonic war jets, strong nuclear bombs, machine guns and increased the size of the army. Unluckily, other nations especially from the Middle East keep on challenging their superiority, which results into wars.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Middle East’s Islamic Ideologies specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The tendency of the western countries to control global civilization is another cause of conflicts and unrest in the modern world. The pace and type of civilization among states can never be equal or involve similar ideologies. Civilization does not only involve economical change but also historical events, linguistics, traditions, culture and above all religion. Thus, different nations have diverse views on families, spiritual matters as well as the responsibilities of each member of the family. Moreover, the traditions of each country or ethnic tribe define differently the roles and hierarchy or position of each member in the family. What is more is that these traditional and social systems have existed over 100 years or more and therefore anybody with an ambition to change them will receive tremendous resistance. What most nations do not understand is that the difference in cultural, social, and religious practices should not lead to wars but rather promote pea ce. The cultural differences are not similar to political systems that exist in the modern world. Therefore, if the western world and the Middle East stop interfering with the cultural and social practices of each other, then peace will definitely prevail all over the world. The advanced technology and transport systems promote international interaction. Different people or nations become aware of their culture and civilization. For instance, there are different ethnic or tribal groups in African culture but none of the tribal groups becomes important when any of them resides in Europe. An Africa from Kenya or Nigeria will simply earn his title as a Kenyan or a Nigerian, which eventually culminates into animosity or resistance leading to conflicts. Similarly, when a person from North Africa (Islamic state) migrates to Europe or united State or vice versa, he/she may experience hostility because of the difference in culture or the difference in civilization ideologies. Additionally, in the corporate world the western worlds are comfortable when conducting business within themselves rather than with other nations especially from Asia. According to Huntington, â€Å"these increasing interactions intensify civilization consciousness and awareness of differences between civilizations and commonalities within civilizations† (1993, p. 25). Thus, unless the tension and negative perception between different regions, which started with the ancestors cease, the conflicts will last forever. The cultural differences also promote conflicts in the world. There is no nation that readily backs up or respect the culture, which contradicts from hers. The African, Asian and western cultures differ widely especially in the mode of clothing. For instance, the Asian especially Muslim women cover their face and head with a hijab, which is their traditional culture. Additionally, the culture forbids women to wear tight clothes particularly trousers.Advertising Looking for research paper on asian? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Muslim men put on Kanzus and not suits, as it is the cultural norm in the west. On the contrary, the Western culture condemns the use of hijabs and most of their women put on trousers. Recently, there was a fracas in France when the law enforcers arrested women putting on hijabs or covering their heads. Therefore, each of the nations ensures that its culture stands all over the world. Unfortunately, the urge to hold onto the culture leads to disagreements because nobody is ready to adjust to the other. Thus, with the continued flow of Muslims in America, Britain, France and other parts of the western world, cultural clashes may not cease. One of the supporters of Huntington thesis recalls his disagreement with unknown person because the person asked him â€Å"why are you wearing a tie and a suit? They are western too?† (Said, 2001, p. 2). According to Said (2001), cultural diversity was the route of his fight between the Arabs and the whites (P. 2). Currently, Muslims bel ieve their culture is more superior but due to lack of political power, they are unable to promote it, which is the route cause of holy wars or jihads. The conflicts that prevail in the contemporary world started in the historical era. During the establishment of empires and monarchies in the ancient times, emperors, princes, and kings led their people in conquering other nations. Consequently, the attacks not only increased their armies or territories but also increased the economy. In addition, the colonization of most of Asian countries by Britain resulted in the fall of ancient empires like the Ottoman while the Safavid empire fall was due to invasion from Afghanistan. The Ottoman Empire stretched from the Middle East to North Africa and Southern Europe. The fall of the vast empire was due to colonialism and since the countries of the Middle East want to reestablish their historical empires or territories, frequent clashes with the Western world are therefore inevitable. Therefo re, the wars were due to international conflicts, which is still in progress in the modern world. Most nations are fighting to spread and increase their territories, which has led to conflicts in the current world. Likewise, the emergence of the first, second and cold wars in the nineteenth century led to the division of the world on basis of economic and political classes. The impact of the historical wars and the subsequent fall of the political systems like the empires affected negatively the socio-economic and cultural structures of the nations. The consequences of the wars persist in the modern times because the countries from Middle East are fighting to reinstate or restore their culture, political and social structures. On the other hand, the countries colonized by Western countries put pressure on their people to refute the western ideologies or cultural practices established during the colonial era resulting into conflicts. The other conflicting issue is the rapid economic expansion that the whole world is undergoing. The biasness of trade partners results in international and interregional conflicts. China and Japan are the countries whose economy is on the rise. Regrettably, the civilization of Japan and China is neither uniform with European nations nor the Middle East. Consequently, the basis of economic growth on civilization promotes corporation of regions or nations with similar practices. Although Japan has the most powerful economy in the Asian region, the corporation of China with other countries like Taiwan and Singapore will eventually raise its economic status above all other countries in Asia. The uniformity of cultural practices and similarity in civilization accelerates China’s unity with other countries in the bloc. Similarly, religion practices determine economic practice as it is the case with non-Arabic Muslim countries like Turkey Iran and Pakistan among others (Weidenbaum, 1993, p.2). The impact of establishing economies o n basis of religion and culture has led to the failure of economic ties not only between United States and the Middle East but also between Northern and southern American states. According to philosophers, the religion or cultural divergence affects the creation of policies on human rights, immigration, trade, commerce, or environmental issues (Huntington, 1996, p.26). Therefore, due to conflicts among nations, the economy of the world is set to fluctuate forever. Finally, civilization conflicts occur in three stages. The first stage also referred to as the micro-level, there is ethnic, tribal, or civil wars within a nation. Each of the group’s fights to control the territory of the other or to possess power within a region as it is the case in Sudan and Somali. The second stage occurs at international also called the macro-level where nations compete in military, economic, and international organizations. The final category is where nations compete in promoting their politic al and religion policies. Conclusion In summary, the fights between the Middle East and the Western world have become contagious or have negatively affected other nations. Although the different regions possess diverse economic, social, cultural, and political practices, they fight to promote their individual ideologies. The culture, language, lifestyle, and economic practices differ according to the region but nobody in the world understands that. Modern civilization bases on culture and religion, which are the major source of conflicts. According to philosophers, Asia, Africa, America and Europe can never realize peace unless each of the regions promote intercultural practices and condemn trade based on religion and culture. For Middle East and Western countries like the United States to experience peace, other nations especially in the Middle East should learn to respect the religious differences in the world. References Gelvin, J. L. (2011). The modern Middle East: A history. Ne w York, NY: Oxford University Press. Huntington, S. (1993). The clash of civilizations? Foreign affairs, 72 (3), 22-49. Huntington, S. (1996). The clash of civilizations. United States: Simon and Schuster Press, Said, E. (2001). The clash of ignorance. The nation. Retrieved from,2 Weidenbaum, M. (1993). Greater China: the next Economic Superpower. Contemporary  Issues, 57, 2-13. This research paper on Middle East’s Islamic Ideologies was written and submitted by user Arturo Soto to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.